Before you can be found guilty of a criminal offence, the Crown must prove your guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. "Beyond a reasonable doubt" describes how sure a judge or jury must be to find you guilty of a criminal offence. Proving something "beyond a reasonable doubt" is much closer to absolute certainty than being able to show a balance of probabilities.
When someone like a witness or accused person, is required to come to court for a scheduled proceeding, and the judge wants them to come back on another day. That person is "bound over" to the next court date. The court document that compelled the person's attendance on the first court date remains valid to compel attendance at the next court date. Any conditions of the document that compelled the person's attendance remain valid and in effect until the next court date.
A budget is a plan that says how you will spend the money you receive within a certain period of time. Usually, people create a monthly budget that shows the income they get in a month and all the things they need to, or want to, spend that money on in the month.
A rule passed by a city or town council. For example, most cities or towns in Ontario have "property standards" by-laws, which say that buildings must be kept in good repair. Tenants have the right to have their landlords comply with these standards. Some by-laws might say how many people are allowed to live in one apartment, depending on its size.
Corporations (companies) also have by-laws. For example, a housing co-operative or a condominium corporation might have by-laws that affect the rights of tenants, members, or owners.
The Canada Pension Plan (CPP) is run by the Canadian government. Employers and workers make contributions to the plan and in certain situations the benefits are paid out to the worker or their family to partially replace their earnings.
These situations can include:
- if a worker becomes disabled and can no longer work [link to CPP disability benefits]
- iIf a worker dies
- if a worker retires [Link to retirement pension], or
- if a worker reaches a certain age
You may also get these benefits by credit splitting after a common-law relationship, divorce, or separation, even if you are not a worker.
The Canada Revenue Agency manages the income tax process. They’re also responsible for some social benefits, like the Goods and services tax/Harmonized sales tax (GST/HST) credit, Canada child benefit, and child disability benefit.
Cancellation rights mean that if a dealer does not tell you information they are required to by law, you can cancel your purchase agreement within 90 days from when you signed.
A rented place to live where the landlord provides care services or makes them available to the tenants. Examples of care services are nursing care, supervision of medications, attendant care, and help with daily living activities. A tenant is a care home tenant only if getting the services was a reason they moved there. Retirement homes for seniors are a common type of care home.
A case conference is a meeting between a judge and you and your partner, and your lawyers if you have any. The purposes of a case conference include:
- figuring out the issues that need to be solved in your case
- talking about ways to solve those issues without going to a trial
- figuring out the information you and your partner need to share