A temporary resident is someone who has permission from Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada to be in Canada for a specific period of time. This includes visitors, people with some study permits, people with some work permits, and people with Temporary Resident Permits.
Not everyone who's allowed to enter Canada is a temporary resident. For example, if you make a refugee claim, this does not give you the status of a temporary resident. But you can remain in Canada until your refugee claim process is complete.