Sometimes people can apply to Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) for permanent resident status based on what are called humanitarian and compassionate grounds.
The grounds, or reasons, can be almost anything that makes others feel compassion for and want to help the person making the application. For example, a reason people often use is that they would face hardship if they had to return to their home country. They also explain that they're established in Canada and have created a life here.
Another important factor is whether a child would be directly affected if the applicant had to return to their home country. This is because IRCC must consider what's in the child's best interests. It does not have to be the applicant's child.